2、做旅游攻略的过程,就是一个简单的 research 过程。
3、et al 就是 and others 的意思。
答案:To report on a piece of research the writer has conducted;、To answer a question the writer has been given or chosen;、To discuss a subject of common interest and give the writer’s view;、To synthesize research done by others on a topic.
2、My Most Embarrassing Moment是一个可以写的论文题目。
答案:Research Log、Work Schedule、Mental Inventory、Brainstorming
答案:your topic and your thesis、the kinds of sources you plan to consult、the problems you anticipate、any special aspects of your project
答案:to remain focused on the research topic.、to resist the temptation to be distracted by unrelated sites.、to review the source, point of view, and completeness of all documents related to the research topic.
答案:What are the key ideas in this?、Does the argument of the writer develop logically, step by step?、Are the examples given helpful? Would other examples be better?、Does the author have any bias (leaning to one side or the other)?、Does the evidence presented seem reliable, in my experience and using common sense?、Do I agree with the writer’s views?
5、在布尔运算中,常用的位置算符有 W/n(Within/n), N/n( Near/n) 。
1、Generally, there are two kinds of light pollution: ecological pollution and astronomical light pollution. 不属于common knowledge.
2、The negative effects of GM crops have been shown on animals in many studies. 不属于 common knowledge.
3、There have been about 400 cancer deaths among 100,000 Japanese nuclear bomb survivors. 属于common knowledge.
4、下面哪些情况是剽窃(Y)?哪些不是剽窃(N)? 1. I take ideas, materials and pictures from the Internet without referencing. 2. I use another person’s sentences but change them significantly without referencing. 3. I follow another person’s example in terms of design and method without referencing. 4. I take a graph from a textbook, giving the source. 5. I give a citation for some information but misspelling the author’s name.
答案:Y Y Y N Y
答案:Short in-text note giving the author’s name and publication date.
答案:has a different structure to the original、has mainly different vocabulary、retains the same meaning、keeps some phrases from the original that are in common use
1、The more detail you include in your outline, the easier the writing process will be.
2、The procedure involved in outlining is basic in both written and oral communication: formulation of an overall idea (a thesis), division of material into main points, and sensible organization of supporting material for each main point.
3、A formal outline is a diagram of a paper’s design, a bird’s-eye view of its structure.
4、If one Roman numeral is subdivided into capital letters and the next one is subdivided as far as lowercase letters, the outline probably is correct.
答案:You will add some topics and delete others.、You will reevaluate topics.、You will rearrange the order of topics and subtopics to facilitate transitions and improve coherence.
答案:Examine the evidence or arguments presented.、Check out the limitations of the studies designed.、Examine the interpretations made.、Decide to what extent you are prepared to accept the author’s arguments, opinions or conclusions.
答案:Is the purpose clearly defined?、Are the varying viewpoints/methodologies/models/theories fully discussed?、Are gaps in literature and research identified?、Are the bibliographical details of the sources provided?
答案:The research referred to is recent, or is more indicative of the present state of knowledge.、There is no specific date or time you can refer to in the beginning of the literature review.、It is used when summarizing an area of research in the literature review.、It is used when referring to someone’s views, positions or arguments, especially when comparing positions in a debate.
4、A good literature review, especially a self-contained review, is composed of four parts: a introduction, a body , a discussion and a conclusion.
5、基本定义的构成是 Word , Category , Application , Example 。
答案:Limit the number of questions so the respondent can answer them in a minute or two.、Keep questions clear and simple, and not too personal.、Closed questions are easier to process, but open questions will collect a wider range of responses.、You should try putting the questions to a classmate before beginning the full survey, and be ready to modify any that were not clear.、Do not collect unnecessary information.
2、Methods section It typically consists of four subsections: 1) participants; 2) materials; 3) samples; and 4) procedures.
3、Knowing how the data are collected helps the reader evaluate the validity and reliability of your results and your conclusion.
4、The method section of a research paper provides the methods and procedures used in a research study or experiment.
5、The procedure part of your method section should detail the procedures used in your experiment. Explain what you had participants do, how you collected data, and the order in which steps occurred.
1、In results section, all results deserve a separate table or figure.
2、Bar chart is used to show proportion.
3、When referring to visual information in the text, the word figure is used for almost everything (such as maps, charts and graphs) except tables.
答案:Do not give detailed methods which belong to the methods section.、Do not list data which belongs to the discussion section.、Do not repeat the details which is already listed in a table.、Do not try to describe all the raw data , but select and highlight the main data.、Do not offer the description of the data without an opening sentence which summarizes the findings derived from the data.
答案:Limit the number of tables and figures、Write a descriptive title for each table and figure.、Number each table and figure in the order in which they are referred to in the text、Be sure all tables and figures are referred to in the text.
1、在 Discussion Section 中,需要回答的基本问题包括:
答案:Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings?、Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps an unforeseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?)、Given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the Introduction?、If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e.g., what experiments would you do next?
2、在 Discussion Section 中,需要简要地说明以下几个方面:
答案:restate the major findings、compare your results with those of previous studies、explain your findings, especially the unexpected findings、discuss the implications of your finding
答案:background of the study、research objectives、methods employed、important findings or results obtained、conclusions drawn
4、Basically, an abstract is a single paragraph (about 200 words) containing about 4 to 10 full sentences.
5、The function of hedging language is to protect you from possible criticism or to minimize or soften what you say.
答案:Place the reference list immediately after the conclusion section, but before the appendix.、Do not include sources which you read but did not use.、Arrange the sources alphabetically by the last name of the author, or, if there is no author, by the first word of the title.、Be consistent with punctuation, placement of the year of publication and use of Italics.
2、In APA style, two works by the same author published in the same year are arranged alphabetically with a lowercase letter added after the year to distinguish between them.
3、In APA style, only proper nouns and the first word of a title and subtitle are capitalized.
4、Except for major cities, APA style uses the two-letter postal abbreviation to identify the state in which the publisher is located.
5、In MLA style, if you are likely to use a dissertation: after the title add Diss. (not italicized or enclosed in quotation marks), the university, and the year.
6、In MLA style, if you have two or more books by the same multiple authors, the three hyphens should be used for all entries after the first.
7、In CSE style, we don’t need to use numbers within the text to refer to the end references.
答案:Using the Active Voice、Varying Sentence Patterns、Avoiding Jargon、Writing Concisely
2、After completing your first draft, you should leave it for a day and then reread it, asking yourself the following questions:
答案:Does this fully answer the question(s) in the title?、Do the different sections of the paper have the right weight (i.e. is it well balanced)?、Does the argument or discussion develop clearly and logically?、Have I forgotten any important points that would support the development?
答案:Shows formality and accuracy in the choice of language; Avoids colloquial language, spoken expressions and cliches.、Supports arguments by quotes, paraphrases and summaries; Uses elaboration, explanation and synthesis of ideas.、Use in-text reference and end-of-text reference list; Is based on research-supported points.、Uses subject- or field-specific language to the extent that it may be difficult for a person outside the area to fully understand the text; Uses complete sentences and paragraphs.
答案:Have all sources been adequately, consistently and correctly in-text referenced?、Are you sure that your paraphrasing is rewritten substantially instead of by changing a few words?、Are you sure the direct quotation should be used less and an indented paragraph used to highlight it if the quotation runs more than two lines?、Do you synthesize well from several sources by using appropriate reporting verbs?
5、The test of a statement is whether you understand it, not whether a new reader will be able to.
6、As you revise your draft, check each paragraph to make certain that it is unified around a single idea and that it is developed in logical sequence.
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